Where Are Blood Cells Made and How Antibody Works

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Blood Cells Made

White blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are made in the bone marrow.

Bone marrow is a substance that fills the bone cavity. This jelly-like substance consists of fat, blood and special cells (stem cells) which change into various types of blood cells.

There are two types of bone marrow, namely red marrow and yellow marrow. Most red and white blood cells also platelets are made in the red marrow.

The main parts of the bone marrow that involve the formation of blood cells are in the spine, ribs, sternum, hip and skull.

Blood cells in infants and young children are made in the bone marrow in almost all bones in the body. While in adults, only the bones that make up the spine, ribs, pelvic bones, skull and breastbone contain red marrow.

When old age, the red marrow slowly turns into yellow sums. However, if humans experience severe blood deficiency, the body is able to turn the yellow marrow back to red so that the production of blood cells increases.

Blood Type Eksplanation

1901, Dr. Kari Landsteiner found four types of human blood groups and named them A, B, AB, and O. He also found that certain blood types did not match other blood types because of the presence of antibodies.

This antibody causes blood to accumulate if a different type of blood type is mixed. Every human being has one of four blood groups, namely A, B, O and AB.

Each blood group has rhesus (RhD), both positive (Rh +) and negative (Rh).

Blood Type A

RhD negative or positive Antigen A is found at blood cell surface. Anti-B antibodies are found in plasma.

Blood type B

Antigen B d is found in RhD negative or positive surface of blood cells. Anti-A antibodies found on plasma

Blood type AB

Antigens A and B are found in RhD is negative or positive on the surface of blood cells. No antibodies found on in plasma

Blood type O

No antigen is found RhD is negative or positive on the surface of blood cells. Anti-A and anti-B antibodies found in plasma.

 

Term Related to Blood Type

Here is some term related to blood type you might  know :

Antigen

Antigens are foreign substances to the body that stimulate the immune response, especially in producing antibodies. The immune response arises when antibodies, proteins in the immune system, are ordered to attack antigens. Antigens are usually proteins or polysaccharides, but can also be other molecules, including small molecules (hapten) that join protein-carriers (carrier).
So if your blood type is A, the cells in your body form antibodies to type B antigens. In other words, the body kills cells that contain type B antigens so that type A becomes dominant. You can only receive blood type A or blood type O and can donate blood to people with type A or type AB.

Antibody

Antibodies released by the body as B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. When recognizing the presence of foreign substances (antigens) invading the body, these cells increase the release of antibodies. Blood tissue and other fluids carry antibodies throughout the body to where they are most needed. Anti-attacking antibodies
genes in two ways, namely direct and indirect.
• Direct Attack
Antibodies bind or attack the antigen membrane. These physical reactions (known as reactions
antigen-antibody) causes cells to collect (agglutination). This condition facilitates white blood cells to destroy antigen invasion.
• Indirect Attack
Antibodies destroy antigens by activating additional proteins. This protein can do
various things, such as spreading and attacking foreign cells, increasing cell clotting, or weakening antigens.

Bloodstream System

The circulatory system is responsible for circulating blood, nutrients, oxygen and hormones from and to the cell. Through the circulatory system, the average adult produces 4.7 to 5.6 liters of blood, which consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. If measured, the length of the vascular system in the adult human body is around 96,560 kilometers.
The circulatory system consists of three independent systems that work together, namely the heart (cardiovascular), lung (pulmonary), and have several types of blood vessels.

Blood Vessel

Blood vessels are special channels in the bloodstream. Broadly speaking, there are two types of blood vessels, namely veins and arteries. Each of these blood vessels is divided into several types of smaller blood vessels, according to their size and function.

Arteries

Arteries are blood vessels that deliver blood to all body tissues. These veins have very strong vascular walls, and in them blood flows at high speed.

Arteriol

The smallest branch of the arteries is called arteriole. Its function is similar to a control valve when blood is released into the capillary vessels. Arteriols also have a strong muscle wall that can completely close or dilate, so that blood flow to the capillaries can be adjusted according to tissue requirements.

Capillary

Capillary blood vessels help exchange between and fluids, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and ingredients. Unlike the arteries, the capillary wall is very thin and porous to absorb small molecular substances.

Venule

Venule vessels work to collect blood from the capillaries. This is the smallest branch of the vein that blends into a vein.

Vein

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood from all body tissues to the heart. As important as arteries, veins act as the main reservoir of blood. The difference is that the pressure on the vein is very low and the wall lining is thinner. However, the venous wall has muscles that can allow it to contract, narrow and expand. Therefore veins also function as extra blood vessels that can be controlled depending on the body’s needs.

Blood Circulation Mechanism

Circulation in the human body is divided into two systemsic and pulmonary circulation. Systemic circulation is the circulation that supplies blood throughout the body except the lungs, while the pulmonary circulation is the circulation that supplies blood to the lungs to make gas exchanges oxygen with carbon dioxide.
The systemic circulation process begins with blood flow from all body tissues to the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. Through these two veins blood will enter the right atrium of the heart and then pass through the tricuspid valve and enter the right ventricle of the heart.
The next process is followed by the pulmonary circulation, which is blood that has been accommodated in the right ventricle will be pumped towards the lungs through the pulmonary artery.